CBSE Solutions for Class 10 History

Select CBSE Solutions for class 10 Subject & Chapters Wise :

Define Nation.

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Answer :

A body of people who are united by same past, culture, political system and common interests can be defined as a Nation.

What was the concept of a nation-state?

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Answer :

The concept of a nation-state was one in which people and rulers of land came together to develop a sense of common identity and shared history.

Define Plebiscite.

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Answer :

Plebiscite is a system of direct vote by which the people of a region, themselves decide to accept or reject a proposal.

What is referred to as Absolutism?

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Answer :

Unrestricted, despotic and authoritarian monarchial system of rule or government is referred to as absolutism.

Which kind of government was operating in France before the revolution of 1789?

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Answer :

Explanation: Monarchy

What was the mission of the French revolutionaries?

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Answer :

The mission of the French revolutionaries was to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help people to form nations.

What was Napoleonic Code?

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Answer :

Napoleonic code refers to reforms incorporated in administration to make the system more rational and efficient.

Name the provinces under the Habsburg Empire.

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Answer :

The Habsburg Empire ruled over Austria- Hungary. It included the Alpine region of Tyrol, Austria, Sudetenland as well as Bohemia along with Italian speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.

Name any two Italian-speaking provinces of the Habsburg Empire.

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Answer :

Lombardy and Venetia.

What was the tie that bind the diverse groups of Habsburg Empire?

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Answer :

Common allegiance to the emperor.

Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. (2017 D)

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Answer :

  • The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch.
  • When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity.

French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:

  1. The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  2. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  3. A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  4. Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  5. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
  6. They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s. 2017OD

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Answer :

Following are the causes of economic hardships in Europe during 1830s:

  1. Europe had come under the grip of large scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment. Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
  2. Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine- made goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
  3. In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to the hardships of the peasants.

What did Liberal Nationalism stand for? Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere. (2011 OD)

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Answer :

Liberalism or Liberal Nationalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Lour ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere are:

  1. Liberalism stood for freedom of markets and abolition of state imposed restriction. For example, Napoleon’s administration was a confederation of 29 states, each of these possessed its own currencies, weight and measures. Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange.
  2. Liberal Nationalists argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
  3. In 1834, a customs union or ” zollverein” was formed. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 2.
  4. The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interest to national unification.

How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe? Explain with examples. (2013 D)

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Answer :

Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.
(i) Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.

(ii) Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation.
In France, she was named Marianne—a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania.

(iii) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.

(iv) Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.

“Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Support the statement. (2016 OD, 2014 OD, 2012 D)

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Answer :

Napoleon had brought revolutionary changes in the administrative field in order to make the whole system rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 is usually known as the Napoleonic Code.

  1. The first major change was doing away with all privileges based on birth, establishing equality before law and securing the right to property.
  2. Administrative divisions were simplified.
  3. Feudal system was abolished and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues (abuse of manorial lords).
  4. In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
  5. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  6. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
  7. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods in particular began to realize that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

1

French Revolution

A

individual freedom and equality before law

2

 Liberalism

B

ensured right to property for the privileged class

3

 Napoleonic Code

C

 transfer of sovereignty from monarch to the French citizens

4

The Treaty of Vienna

D

brought the conservative regimes back to power

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Answer :

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-D

1

Treaty of Constantinople

A

cultural movement

2

Junkers

B

recognised Greece as an independent nation

3

Romanticism

C

strong devotion for one’s own country and its history and culture

4

Nationalism

D

Large landowners

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Answer :

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

1

Utopian Society

A

Napoleonic Code

2

Plebiscite

B

a society that is unlikely to ever exist and a society under the control of a chosen few wise men

3

The French Revolution

C

a direct vote by which all the citizens of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.

4

The Civil Code of 1804 in France is usually known as

D

The first great revolution which gave the clear idea of nationalism with its core words: ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’

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Answer :

1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

1

The liberal nationalism

A

freedom for the individual and equality before law.

2

Giuseppe Mazzini

B

Universal Suffrage

3

 the right to vote for all adults.

C

formed the secret society called ‘Young Italy’

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Answer :

1-A, 2-C, 3-B

1

The Treaty of recognized Greece
as an independent nation:

A

played the leading role in the unification of Germany

2

Duke Metternich

B

Prussian victory

3

Otto Von Bismarck (Prussian Chief Minister)

C

‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’

4

Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, Germany and France, ended in

D

Constantinople 1832

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Answer :

1-D, 2-C, 3-A, 4-B

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