CBSE Solutions for Class 10 Biology

Select CBSE Solutions for class 10 Subject & Chapters Wise :

Capillaries join together to form …………… that convey the blood away from the organ or tissue.

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veins

Fishes have a heart with …………… chambers while the amphibians have …………… chambers in their heart.

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two, three

Some amount of plasma, proteins and blood cells escape from …………… the wall into intercellular spaces in the tissues to form the tissue fluid or lymph.

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capillary

Water conducting channels are formed by the …………… and the …………… of the xylem tissue.

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tracheids, vessels

The major driving force for the water in the xylem during day time is the ……………

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transpiration pull

The osmotic pressure in phloem increases on transfer of …………… into it from the leaves.

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Sucrose

The purpose of making …………… is to filter out harmful nitrogenous waste products from the blood.

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Urine

The tubular parts of the nephron selectively …………… the substances needed by the body.

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reabsorbs

Artificial kidney is a device which carries out …………… to remove nitrogenous waste products from the blood.

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Dialysis

Plants can get rid of excess water by ……………

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transpiration

More energy is made available to the organims by the …………… respiration.

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Aerobic

Plants store most of their wastes in the membrane hound structures called …………… present in their cells.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Vacuoles

………. transports products of photosynthesis from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

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phloem

The blood has ………. cells which plug the leakage in the vessels by helping to clot the blood at the point of injury.

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platelet

Rings of cartilage are present in the wind pipe to ensure that the ………. .

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air-passage does not collapse

Breaking of pyruvate using oxygen takes place in the ………. .

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mitochondria

The exit of food from the stomach is regulated by a ………. muscle.

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sphincter

………. is the longest part of the alimentary canal.

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Small intestine

The process of breakdown of glucose, (a six-carbon molecule) into pyruvate, (a three-carbon molecule), takes place in the ………. .

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cytoplasm

………. is the site of the complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

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Small intestine

In single celled organisms diffusion is sufficient to meet all their requirements of food, exchange of gases or removal of wastes but it is not in case of multicellular organisms. Explain the reason for this difference.

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Unicellular organisms can absorb sufficient oxygen because of its complete contact with the atmosphere, but in multicellular organisms the rate of absorption and diffusion becomes very less because all cells are not in direct contact with the atmosphere. Multicellular organisms require greater amount of oxygen to sustain life processes which cannot be fulfilled by the process of diffusion.

State the role of the following in human digestive system :
(i) Digestive enzymes (ii) Hydrochloric acid (iii) Villi

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Answer :

(i) Digestive enzymes – Foods need to be broken into their small or simpler
molecules so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream. However, the physical breakdown of food is not enough. Enzymes are hence needed for the chemical breakdown of food and speeding up the digestive process. The products of digestion can hence be small enough to be absorbed.

(ii) Hydrochloric acid – Hydro chloric acid helps to kill the germs which might have entered in to the system through food. It creates acidic medium for the pepsin to act on food to breakdown proteins.
(iii) Villi – Villi are finger like projections in the small intestine. They help to increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food. Villi are richly supplied with blood vessel which help to absorb digested food in to the blood stream.

(a)Explain how does the exchange of gases occur in plants across the surface of stems, roots and leaves.
(b) How are water and minerals transported in plants ?

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(a) In plants there are tiny pores called stomata on leaves and lenticels in stem which facilitate the exchange of gases. Carbon dioxide is taken in and oxygen given out {during photosynthesis} and vice versa during respiration.
(b) Water and minerals are transported within the plant by the Xylem vessels (mainly in an upward direction); these are part of the vascular system which also includes Phloem vessels.
Phloem transports the products of photosynthesis within the plant, to all parts like the stem, roots, fruits etc. in all directions.

Write correct sequence of four steps of method for the preparation of temporary mount of a stained leaf peel.

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Answer :

  1. Take a healthy leaf from the potted plant.
  2. Remove a part of the peel from the lower surface of the leaf. You can do this by folding the leaf over and gently pulling the peel apart using forceps. Keeps the peel in a watch glass containing water.
  3. Put a few drops of safranin stain in a watch glass.
  4. After 2-3 minutes take out the peel and place it on a clean glass slide.
  5. Put a drop of glycerin over the peel and place a clean covers lip gently over it with the help of a needle.
  6. Remove the excess stain and glycerin with the help of blotting paper.
  7.  Observe the slide under magnifications of the compound microscope.

(a) What is the role of HCl in our stomach ?
(b) What is emulsification of fats ?
(c) Which protein digesting enzyme is present in pancreatic juice ?

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Answer :

(a)(i) It sterilises food by killing pathogens and other microbes.
(ii) It has a pH of 2, which is perfect for entyaus such as pepsin to break down proteins as effectively as possible.
(iii) Helps emulsify food (digestion of protein and stimulates the pancreas to produce digestive enzymes and bile) and protects against harmful ‘ bacteria
(b) Breakdown of large gloubule fats into smaller fats droplets is known as emulsification.
(c) Trypsin is the enzyme secreted by the pancreas which aids in digestion of proteins.

List three characteristics of lungs which make it an efficient respiratory surface.

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Answer :

These features which particularly make our lungs efficient for gas exchange.
1.Thin: the air sac walls are very thin so that gases can quickly diffuse through them. Oxygen is absorbed in to the blood and carbon dioxide is given out in to the lungs to be exhaled out.
2.Moist: the air sacs are moist with mucus so that gases can dissolve before diffusing.
3.Large surface area: the surface area for gases to diffuse through in human lungs is roughly the same as a tennis court. The alveoli help to increase the surface area for absorption of oxygen.
4.Good blood supply: the air sacs or the alveoli have a large capillary network so that large volumes of gases can be exchanged. More the flow of blood more exchange.

In mammals and birds why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood ?

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Answer :

Mammals and birds are warm blooded animals. This means they can control their body temperature and do not have to depend on environment for their body temperature regulation. Because of this birds and mammals require optimum oxidization of glucose which would be possible with good supply of oxygen. So it is required to have separate oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood to supply the required amount of oxygen.

Draw a diagram of human excretory system and label renal artery and urethra.
State in brief the function of :

  1. renal artery
  2.  kidney
  3.  ureter
  4. urinary bladder
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Answer :

  1. Renal artery: The renal artery carries blood to the kidneys from the abdominal aorta. This blood comes directly from the heart and is sent to the-kidneys to be filtered before it passes through the rest of the body. Up to one-third of the total cardiac output per heartbeat is sent to the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys. Each kidney has one renal artery that supplies it with blood. The filtered blood then can exit the renal vein.
  2. Kidney: The kidneys perform the essential function of removing waste products from the blood and regulating the water fluid levels. The kidneys regulate the body’s fluid volume, mineral composition and acidity by excreting and reabsorbing water and inorganic electrolytes.
  3. Ureter: The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.’ There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney.

Urinary bladder: The urinary bladder is an expandable muscular sac that stores urine before it is excreted out of the body through the urethra.

(a) Draw a diagram of excretory system in human beings and label the following parts. Aorta, kidney, urinary bladder and urethra.
(b) How is urine produced and eliminated ?

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Answer :

(a)

(b) Blood from the heart comes into the kidneys afferent and efferent arteriols from the renal arteries where it enters about 2-3 million nephrons per kidney. Then, it goes through the glomerulus a tugt or bunch of blood capillaries and get rid of some of the unwanted substances like urea, uric acid, creatinine in the blood and then continues through the renal tubules. The loop of Henley, reabsorb certain substances such as water (actually if body is dehydrated, body will send anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) to kidneys to prevent extra water from going into urine and thus saving water for body and get rid of anything else that isn’t wanted, then the urine goes through ureters to bladder and then to urethra where it is excreted out of body as urine.

(i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the process of photosynthesis,
(ii) When do the desert plants take up carbon dioxide and perform photosynthesis ?

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Answer :

(i) Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation. The overall balanced equation is
life-processes-chapter-wise-important-questions-class-10-science-1
(ii) Desert plants open up their stomata during night and take in CO2. Stomata remains close during the day time to prevent the loss of water by i transpiration. They store the CO2 in their cells until the sun comes out and they can carry on with photosynthesis during the day time.

Match the words of Column (A) with that of Column (B)

Column A

Column B

Phloem

(i) Excretion

Nephron

(ii) Translocation of food

Veins

(iii) Clotting of blood

Platelets

(iv) Deoxygenated blood

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Answer :

Column A

Column B

Phloem

(ii) Translocation of food

Nephron

(i) Excretion

Veins

(iv) Deoxygenated blood

Platelets

(iii) Clotting of blood

Match the column I with column II and mark the correct option from the codes given below

Column I

Column II

(i) Salivary amylase

(a) Nephron

(ii) Lactic acid

(b) Protein

(iii) Cuticle

(c) Carbon dioxide

(iv) Trypsin

(d) Blood

(v) Heterotrophic

(e) Waxy coating

(vi) Potassium hydroxide

(f) Starch

(vii) Lipase

(g) Muscles

(viii) Filtration unit

(h) Cuscuta

(ix) Connective tissue

(j) Fatty acids and glycerol

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Answer :

Column I

Column II

(i) Salivary amylase

(f) Starch

(ii) Lactic acid

(g) Muscles

(iii) Cuticle

(e) Waxy coating

(iv) Trypsin

(b) Protein

(v) Heterotrophic

(h) Cuscuta

(vi) Potassium hydroxide

(c) Carbon dioxide

(vii) Lipase

(i) Fatty acids and glycerol

(viii) Filtration unit

(a) Nephron

(ix) Connective tissue

(d) Blood

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The GSEB Books for class 10 are designed as per the syllabus followed Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board provides key detailed, and a through solutions to all the questions relating to the GSEB textbooks.

The purpose is to provide help to the students with their homework, preparing for the examinations and personal learning. These books are very helpful for the preparation of examination.

For more details about the GSEB books for Class 10, you can access the PDF which is as in the above given links for the same.

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